The immediate work of this first lesson is to introduce basic principles, vocabulary, and figures in the field of philosophy. One of the first things to note is that everyone is a philosopher. You do not have to have your Ph.D. in Philosophy and teach at Harvard to be a philosopher. Hidden deep beneath the things that you do and the ideologies that you believe is a philosophy. The good philosopher is able to bring these hidden motives to light so that they can be analyzed against authentic reason (and the Revelation of Jesus Christ). This is an Introduction to this course on Philosophy.Preview This Lesson
Buy Philosophy #1 for only $3.99
by Francesco Hayez, 1811
Philosophy in General
Let's talk briefly about the disciple of philosophy in general. The history of philosophy is usually broken down into the following categories:
1. Ancient Philosophy (500 B.C. – 500 A.D.)
2. Medieval Philosophy (500 A.D. – 1500 A.D.)
3. Modern Philosophy (1500 A.D. – 1800 A.D.)
4. Contemporary Philosophy (1800 A.D. – Current)
Ancient Philosophy dealt with the world and the cosmos. The philosophers of this time that will concern us for study are Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Socrates is generally considered the “Father of Philosophy.”
The Medieval period turned its philosophical gaze towards God. Here we find the works of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas.
The Modern period, in general, turns away its focus from God and begins focusing primarily on man. It is important to study the work of Rene Descartes and David Hume from this period.
Finally, Contemporary Philosophy begins to no longer focus on man but to focus on man as a problem. Immanuel Kant would represent the most important philosopher in Contemporary Philosophy.
In another lesson, all of these individuals will be studied briefly. The world in which we live has been greatly influenced (for better or worse) by these thinkers. If we want to be able to form a “critical eye” of the ideas in our time, it is important to see from where these ideas come. There is nothing new; problematic ideologies of our time period have been thought of and refuted in times long past.
Logic, strictly speaking, is not philosophy. However, there is a reason why logic is almost always unanimously placed at the beginning of any philosophical study. Logic is a tool of philosophy, in the sense that it helps us do philosophy better. In fact, in most university curriculums, logic doesn't appear as a philosophy course, but rather as a science or math course. Logic is a science in the sense that it concerns itself with the principles of right reasoning. It is both speculative and practical. It is speculative because it analyzes the reasoning process, and it is practical because it is ordered to guiding the action of the mind to reason correctly. If you have watched the news or a political debate recently, you would have noticed that logic is a discipline that our culture is in dire need of revitalizing. Even St. Augustine recognized the value of logic, calli... Please purchase this lesson to continue learning.
Philosophy #1 is part of the following course(s):