The Second General Council of Lyons was held by Pope Gregory X, the Patriarchs of Antioch and Constantinople, 15 cardinals, 500 bishops, and more than 1000 other dignitaries. It effected a temporary reunion of the Greek Church with Rome. The word filioque was added to the symbol of Constantinople and means were sought for recovering Palestine from the Turks. It also laid down the rules for papal elections.Preview This Lesson
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The Second Council of Lyons began on May 7, 1274, in the Cathedral of St. John. The Pope gave a sermon outlining his threefold plan for the Council — to unite the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches, to send a Crusade to the Holy Land and to reform the morals of the clergy. Let us take each of these reasons separately and see what happened at the Council.
The Bishops of the Greek Orthodox Church met in Constantinople and agreed to union based on three points:
The Bishops requested that their rites and customs remain intact. This was all written up in document which the Bishops signed on December 24, 1273. It was impressed with the Emperor’s golden seal (the chrysobull) and would be translated into Latin for the Council. The Emperor Michael and his son also sent letters freely confessing the articles of faith that had been written by Pope Clement IV. A delegation was sent which included the following members — the former Patriarch Germanos III, the Metropolitan of Nicea, Theophanes, the Metropolitan of Philippi, George Acropolites, the First Lord of the Treasury and the Prime Minister, Panaretus, the Grand Chamberlain and the chief interpreter, Berrhoiotes as well as the friars who had delivered the Pope’s letter.
They sailed on March 11, 1274 but encountered a bad storm. Sadly, one of the ships was sunk causing the deaths of many sailors, Panaretus and Berrhoiotes and the loss of all of the gifts to the Pope. The Constantinopolitans arrived safely at the Council on June 24, 1274, and were greeted warmly by Pope Gregory. On June 29th, the feast of Saints Peter and Paul, the entire Council and the Greek ambassadors took part in a High Mass sung by the Pope. The Credo (Nicene Creed) was sung in Latin and then again in Greek with the phrase “Qui a Patre Filioque procedit” (who proceeds from the Father and the Son) sung three times. The Greek acceptance of this doctrine was an important step towards the reunion of the two Churches.
The Friars Minor (the Franciscans) had played an important part in this reunion. Pope Gregory X had sent two Franciscans — Jerome of Ascoli and Bonagrazia — to deliver his letters and act as his ambassadors. Now the Pope turned to the Minister General of the Franciscan Order, St. Bonaventure. The saint presided over the private sessio... Please purchase this lesson to continue learning.
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