The First Lateran Council, the first held at Rome, met under Pope Callistus II. About 900 bishops and abbots assisted. It abolished the right claimed by lay princes, of investiture with ring and crosier to ecclesiastical benefices and dealt with church discipline and the recovery of the Holy Land from the infidels.Preview This Lesson
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On June 25, 1122 Pope Calixtus II wrote to Bishop Baldric of Doll:;
We intend to arrange a council for a general consideration of important and diverse matters of the Church in Rome on the next Lent. We command, therefore, that, you put aside the Sunday in Lent where Oculi mei is sung to be in Rome with us and with other monks and archbishops, bishops, abbots, and religious men by the grace of God to come to a general council.
Patrologia Latina published by Jacques-Paul Migne, volume 163, pg. 1249
The Oculi mei is an Introit sung on the third week of Lent. (If you would like to listen to this Introit, please visit: http://vimeo.com/13398818). Even up into the 1900s, the Church referred to the Sundays of the year by the first words of the Introit. Oculi mei Sunday was universally understood as the Third Sunday in Lent.
Before the Council could meet however, Pope Calixtus II and the Holy Roman Emperor Henry V signed the Concordat of Worms or the Pactum Calixtinum on September 23, 1122, in the city of Worms. The Concordat made a clear distinction between the religious and secular authority of the Bishop. The Emperor was allowed to first invest the Bishop with secular authority — the lands, powers and privileges the Bishop would have as a vassal of the Crown. The Concordat refers to this as “through the lance.” The Bishop would give homage to the Emperor as a subject to his ruler. The ecclesiastical authorities would then give the new Bishop his staff and ring, symbolizing his religious power. The clergy would elect the Bishop but the Emperor was allowed to decide contested elections. Simony was forbidden. Pope Calixtus II and Emperor Henry V made the following statements:
I, bishop Calixtus, servant of the servants of God, do grant to thee beloved son, Henry — by the grace of God august emperor of the Romans-that the elections of the bishops and abbots of the German kingdom, who belong to the kingdom, shall take place in thy presence, without simony and without any violence; so that if any discord shall arise between the parties concerned, thou, by the counsel or judgment of the metropolitan and the co-provincials, may'st give consent and aid to the party which has the more right. The one elected, moreover, without any exaction may receive the regalia from thee through the lance, and shall do unto thee for these what he rightfully should. But he who is consecrated in the other parts of thy empire (i.e. Burgundy and Italy) shall, within six months, and... Please purchase this lesson to continue learning.
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